To reduce the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely-low-birth-weight infants, clinicians attempt to minimize the use of endotracheal intubation by the early introduction of less invasive forms of positive airway pressure.
Researchers have randomly assigned 1009 infants with a birth weight of less than 1000 g and a gestational age of less than 30 weeks to one of two forms of noninvasive respiratory support, nasal intermittent positive-pressure ventilation ( IPPV ) or nasal continuous positive airway pressure ( CPAP ), at the time of the first use of noninvasive respiratory support during the first 28 days of life.
The primary outcome was death before 36 weeks of postmenstrual age or survival with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Of the 497 infants assigned to nasal IPPV for whom adequate data were available, 191 died or survived with bronchopulmonary dysplasia ( 38.4% ), as compared with 180 of 490 infants assigned to nasal CPAP ( 36.7% ) ( adjusted odds ratio, OR=1.09; P=0.56 ).
The frequencies of air leaks and necrotizing enterocolitis, the duration of respiratory support, and the time to full feedings did not differ significantly between treatment groups.
In conclusion, among extremely-low-birth-weight infants, the rate of survival to 36 weeks of postmenstrual age without bronchopulmonary dysplasia did not differ significantly after noninvasive respiratory support with nasal IPPV as compared with nasal CPAP. ( Xagena )
Kirpalani H et al, N Engl J Med 2013; 369:611-620